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LEARNING DISABILITIES INCLUSION: BARRIERS & CHALLENGES

By Parijat Tripathi
In Education
March 19, 2019
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In the light of globalization, the educational challenges that we face today are too demanding, complex. The language formula mandates compulsory learning of one extra language creating the root cause of students getting trapped into the web of learning disabilities. With illuminating a constructive pedagogy that is both sensitive and responsive to the special need for these young learning disabled students who are suffering from learning disabilities. Exploring instructional and innovative strategies they can be engaged in adopting new methodologies and experiments that can be implemented on the students suffering from learning disabilities and assist them to transform themselves. To bring them into the mainstream innovative approaches, students collaboration and visual communication should be elucidated in teaching them.

                Learning disorder is a kind of development or difficulty with language learning. Students who are trapped suffering from learning disorder typically have average intelligence. They may face difficulty with reading, spelling understanding language they hear, or expressing themselves clearly in speaking or in writing. An unexpected gap exists between their potential for learning and their school achievements. Learning disabilities tend to be diagnosed when children reach school age. This is because school focuses on all the areas of learning that may be difficult for the child – reading, writing, math, listening, speaking, and reasoning. These disabilities are often discovered when a parent notices that their child is unusually slow to reach developmental milestones. Learning disorder has special talents and if their talents are recognized praised and encouraged they will excel in their field of interest. Learning disorder is frustrating and often embracing problem in our world of high- tech communication. One in every 10 students in the classroom could be suffering from learning disorder. The modern educational system claims to be learners centered and the 10% of students cannot be ignored . This article relates that teachers even with no prior training in special education can go far away helping these students to acquire this foreign Language. The need of the hour is – awareness of the problem, empathy, patience, and application of certain remedial techniques. The general psychology defaults associated with  learning disorder are weaker verbal fluency functions, poorer problem solving, and organization of sentences, smaller and short term memory, capacity problems in auditory and visual processing and short span of attention.

COMMON LEARNING DISABILITIES

Dyslexia Difficulty processing language Problem reading, writing, spelling, speaking.
Dyscalculia Difficulty in math Problem doing math problems, understanding time, using money.
Dysgraphia Difficulty with fine motor skills Problem with handwriting , spelling, organizing ideas
Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration  Disorder) Difficulty hearing differences between sounds. Problems with hand—eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity.

                                 In the class room activities, learning disorder students manifest themselves in a number of ways. These students find it difficult to memorize sequence, remember – people , place and names of object understand complicated questions, lacking listening skills  . In a research conducted in primary class learning disorder becomes evident when accurate and fluent word reading or spelling developed incomplete or pronunciation comes out inaccurate. In grade 1st students face the problem  of not identifying the alphabet or getting confused in small alphabets especially  with b and d, and coping from the  board was almost impossible for them . Making spelling mistakes  is an common area of concern. Their span to forget the spellings or loss of memory is quite frequent. They also lack the listening competency, and they are often anxious and frustrated. They are unable to cope in peer and group work activity , resulting their peer often refuse to work with them. Some experiments and suggestion this way strong channels of learning are used, helping to build up weaker but essential ones, when applied on them  it was found that there was enormous amount of change in their behavior.

  • Learning disorder is a not a disease and cannot be cured by a trip to the doctor or a magic pill.  It is a way of thinking, the way the brain is wired and how it processes information.
  • Research has shown that the brain can actually be rewired if the individual is taught with systematic, explicit, sequential phonics taught in a multi-sensory way.

MULTISENSORY
We use multisensory methods for teaching and our students use multisensory ways for practicing and learning. This means using as many senses as possible at a time to make learning easier – looking, listening, saying and doing. In this way strong channels of learning are used, helping to build up weaker but essential ones.

 

EYE TRACKING CONTRIBUTION TO  LEARNING DISABILITY

The control of the eye movements is an essential part of reading, using a finger under the words significantly helps their reading flow. Reading with a ruler under the line or a finger under the words can help to relieve some of the symptoms if a child has a learning disability in which eye tracking and movement plays a part, the situation is treatable!  Through vision therapy.

FINDINGS

                 In an survey conducted with the teachers teaching at the primary level it was discovered that learning disabled learners face an enormous difficult task in learning languages. The specific symptoms for the language teacher is to hunt out the children those who are constantly lagging behind the others and are anxious and frustrated .In most of the cases the teacher gets impatient, gives bad grades or adopt disciplinary measures, resulting withdrawal from learning, becoming in active in studies,or conversely they try to get every ones attention by misbehaving or acting funny. The survey could produce a number of facts the child suffering from learning disabilities can also learn a foreign language, but their learning style is different. Majority of the learning disabled students are taught in integrated school system, where teachers are not well equipped with the authentic tools to provide them with appropriate learning. Implementation of some technique of teaching could find some solution for a space for improvement.

REMEDIAL MESURES

ORAL DRILLING

Use of songs rhymes , through LCD, tape- recorders, extensively , multisensory activities, active motion and mime help learning disorder learners, memorize words, phrases and sentences boost the students confidence.

REDUCTION OF COURSE

‘Teach less but teach thoroughly’ is the main extract for students suffering from dyslexia because they learn at a much slower pace. Only a great amount of practice becomes a boon for them.

READING OF STORY BOOKS OR READING CARDS

It could act as wonders with a lot of colorful pictorial illustrations. The passage reading in the book should be short and printed in big sized letters. Short and Easy passages makes reading becomes more conducive to the learning disorder students.

HELPING THROUGH BLACK- BOARD

Special time has to be utilized for the learning disorder child to copy from the board, and the letters on the board are always written in clear and bold font .Addition of colored chalks makes the font more clear and attractive.

CLASS PRACTICE

The students should be given a lot of class-room practice as it takes lot of time for these children to become autonomous learners.

TECHNOLOGY

With the accomplishment of technology the learning disorder child become more prone to an learning environment the use of calculators, word processors, even audio tape recorder proved helpful when they recorded it and listen to their own voice.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR  ACTING AND MIMING

 In order to make the students more vibrant in the classroom the activities like Role- plays, dramatization,  Miming games, matching games, guessing games proved to be very effective.

READING ACTIVITIES

Online reading course fosters a dynamic skill in the child and he wants to repeat this activity  several times. Some sight words were experimented with a ‘Word Wall’ filled with words, the learning disorder child repeats the word by writing it on a piece of paper and prepare a word pictorial  book.

AUDIO VISUAL AIDS  AND TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS

 The class-room for the learning disorder students should be embarked with colorful and pictorial illustration. The recognition of the alphabets are done through flash cards. The use of TLM for recognition of words and then drawing and coloring it become an enjoyable activity.

ENCOURAGING PEER LEARNING

Learning disorder student when paired up in groups perform their learning skillfully. The task becomes more meaningful and constructive, learning becomes more enjoyable.

IDENTIFICATION OF ALPHABETS THROUGH FINGERS

To make them understand the problem of b and  d through visual media

As it give an impact of bed and also explain them the problem of b  and  d

  • Try to teach them through  hand  posture

ACTIVITY  HOPSCOTCH–

Find an empty space large enough for a child to jump or run. Draw few boxes with alphabets on the floor using chalk. The child has to jump into the correct box when he /she will hear the sound.

 HOW TO FOCUS LEARNING ACTIVITIES TO DEFEAT LEARNING DISORDER

  • Handwriting is the most essential part to be included, throughout the day. Next to phonics, handwriting is the most important reading activity for learning disorder students because it improves their short-term memory. Copying and writing help improve this area of short-term memory. Students benefit from writing because a special type of concentration stimulates the brain and makes it more receptive to learning.
  • Teach memorization skills. Focus lessons do no good unless students can remember what they have learned. To help students work on their short-term memory, include memorization tasks in each lesson.
  •  Use other focus activities that require concentration such as reading out loud, connect the dots, checkers, walking a straight line, playing ‘pick-up sticks’, and working with building blocks.

TIPS FOR PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES

  • Praise your child when he or she does well.
  • Find out the ways your child learns best.
  • Let your child help with household chores.
  • Pay attention to your child’s development.
  • Talk to other parents whose children have learning disabilities.
  • Meet with school personnel and help develop an educational plan to address your child’s needs.
  • Establish a positive working relationship with your child’s teacher.

RESULTS

These fun loving activities made the students explore more new dimensions of learning

In the classroom situation. The classroom becomes more realistic with providing these lifelong learning skills in the children. Praising them time to time and giving them stars or small incentives brings a radical change in them. With doing your own research, different programmes and educational techniques can make an impact in the mind of the child. The teacher might have to speak up time to time again, and embrace their role as a proactive teacher and work on their own communication skills. It may be frustrating at times , but your calm, voice could go a long way to create a difference.

Dealing withlearning disorderlearners has now become a regular feature of life. We know they that they approach us in various shapes and sizes and no two of them are the same. A teaching tip applicable to one might fail for another. It requires a great deal of patience and  determination both on the students as well as teacher to develop the strategies that work best for each individual learner It is only through motivation and hard work that can lead us to success . There are plenty of instances that only through the dedication of the teacher the child could come out of the web of learning disorder. A person with this learning disorder simply needs support from their family, friends, teachers, and anyone else involved in their lives. There is some extraordinary work involved and it takes some determination and persistence, but people faced with dyslexia can be successful students and successful in their adult life.

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