NYAY: Is it required after 70 years of Independence?
Congress President on 25th March 19 guaranteed the minimum income (NYAY – Minimum Income Scheme) of Rs.27,000 per year to 20% of the poor families, which has been given the name of ‘NYAY’.
Every government that comes after independence spread widely Attempts to remove the problem of poverty occurred and started many such subsidies (schemes) on which to reduce the percentage of poor in the society.
During the freedom struggle, leaders and political parties had promised to create a welfare state for the people. Constitution makers made India’s imagination as a welfare state. In Article IV of the Constitution, Article 38, which relates to the policy principles of the state, clearly states: “The state will try to promote and protect the welfare of the people because it is a social system in which justice, social, economic And political development will all institutions of national life be enriched. “
First time Congress President Subhash Chandra Bose In 1938, the idea of a minimum income guarantee scheme was held in Haripur session. Even a committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru to study this idea and find its viability, but due to the onset of World War II and less political will of Nehru it could not be continued further.
Regardless that this futures are done by political parties in the manifesto issued during national or state elections, its benefits and losses should be seen in the light of the concept of welfare defined in the Indian Constitution. In order to fulfill this constitutional goal, different governments started separate subsidy schemes, but inequality remained intact in the financial sector, especially in the region. With the widespread implementation of liberalization in the last decade of the last century, the gap between the rich and the poor has increased more since the country’s economy was fully opened and thus the world became exposed.
In 2004, the Congress-led UPA government passed the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act and the Right to Education Act passed by Parliament to give rights to employment and education to the poor. In September 2013, the right to food for affordable and adequate food was also given by the Indian state. The rights-based approach and opposition to the assurance of minimum guarantees for food, education, employment and income now has been done with the argument that such a Schemes kill the tendency of undertaking in a person, destroys the motivation to work, and promotes financial indiscipline. It is also argued that corruption often spreads through such measures. It is also said that implementation of such schemes on the practical level is very difficult.
A report prepared by the Center for Equity Studies published in 2017 on 25 years of liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy has said that the growth since 1990 was three times higher than the level of the first four decades after independence, but the rate of poverty was 1981 Decreased from 0.94% per year during 1990-only to 0.65% between 1990 and 2005. As a result, due to high decibel growth since 2000, 10% of the wealthy people A. increased 12-fold, while the poorest 10% of people’s income increased only three times and insufficient created because employment, as India exclusion stated in the report.
With the unemployment reached at the highest level in the last 45 years, the promise of minimum income for the poorest families is definitely a strong effort to awaken the expectations of the masses in the ideological conflict environment, which often decides to influence the election results decisively. It is a matter of debate that the annual expenditure of 360 billion crores, which is roughly 1.2 percent of GDP, results in future The fiscal imbalance is valid or not. By rational use of existing subsidies by eliminating unnecessary and maintaining useful, resources can be created to solve this problem.
Arguing that lack of appetite or nutritious food adversely affects human development and inhibit the intellectual development of the human being authentically and therefore a section of experts supporting the concept of welfare state believe that protection from poverty can prove to be effective in the direction of speed.
Guarantee based ideology and basic minimum income guarantee in countries like Brazil Responsible results are given. Here a law was passed in 2001 under which the welfare system has been enforced.
In 2004, Brazil presented a social welfare program called ‘Bolsa Familia’, under which direct cash transfer has been tried to reduce short-term poverty. This plan abolishes long-term poverty through conditional cash transfers by increasing human capital among the poor. As a result of the ‘Bolsa Familia’ plan, poverty has decreased by 27 percent in Brazil. Due to this ‘Bolsa Familia’ scheme has been appreciated internationally.
The effectiveness of welfare ideology came out in 2018-19 when the demand for jobs under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (Manarga) increased by at least 10 percent. This demand was due to the financial constraint generated by high unemployment in the rural area.
In this financial year, till March 25, 255 crore person-days were created under Manerga, whose number is expected to increase in the future. As a result, data shows that 235 million man-days were created in 2017-18 and 235 crore man-days were created in both the years 2015-16 and 2016-17.
Whether this is a game changer during the general elections being held or not, it can’t be estimated, but it is certain that it has so far returned economic issues to the national debate on the ongoing debate.